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Biology Office -
Room M803
University Plaza
Brooklyn NY 11201
718 488 1209
718 488 1465 (Fax)

Biology Department
Graduate Program

Biology - Graduate

Professors Cohen, Curley (Chair), Hammerman, Hirshon, Polak

Professors Emeriti Carito, Dowd, Firriolo, Iovino, Reeves Smith, Rothwell, Wendt

Associate Professors Birchette, Chung, McKenna, Morin

Associate Professor Emeritus Ballweg

Assistant Professors DePass, Griffiths, Haynes, Helmer, Kovac, Sideris, Trachman

Instructors Chambers, Vogelstein Adjunct Faculty: 5

The Department of Biology seeks to prepare students for primary Tesponsibili- ties in research and teaching. Candidates may qualify for the degree of Master of Science (M.S.) in Biology.

Admission to Degree Program

The applicant for admission should have completed at the undergraduate level 1) six advanced courses in biology, 2) one year of college mathematics, 3) one year each of inorganic and organic chemistry, and 4) one year of college physics. Deficiencies in any of these qualifications must be removed during the first year of graduate study without credit.

Degree Requirements
Candidates for the Master of Science degree in Biology must satisfactorily complete a minimum of 30 credits and complete an acceptable thesis based on original research. Students in Medical Microbiology may complete 36 credits of course work without the thesis and must pass a comprehensive examination.

Each candidate must satisfactorily complete Biology 603 and Biology 604. In addition, students must take the designated introductory course in each group (A-B) and 11-14 additional graduate credits in the Biology Department. Students in Medical Microbiology should follow the program model listed under Group C.

Fully matriculated students may begin their research projects after defending their thesis proposals before a committee of graduate biology faculty. An oral defense of the completed thesis before a committee of the graduate faculty of the department is required.

All graduate students are required to attend the regularly scheduled graduate seminars given by the Biology Department. Students will be responsible for answering comprehensive questions relating to those seminars which are relevant to their graduate courses.

Programs and Courses
Candidates may specialize in one of the following
fields:
   Microbiology
   Molecular-Cellular Biology
   Medical Microbiology

Course offerings are divided into four groups:



Group A - Microbiology  
Course Cr.
521 Protozoology
641, 642 Advanced Microbiology
643 Mycology
647 Immunology
   or
648 Immunobiology
695 General Virology
4
7
4
4

3
3

Students specializing in Microbiology must complete
Biology 641, 642.



Group B - Molecular-Cellular Biology  
Course Cr.
528 Cell Biology Laboratory
550 Molecular and Cell Biology
551 Molecular and Cell Biology Laboratory
609 Human Genetics
612 Cytology: The Nucleus
613 Cytology: The Cytoplasm
631 Genetics
632 Developmental Biology
692 Molenuler-Bioiogy-
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3


Students specializing in Molecula
r Cellular Biology must complete Biology 550, 551, 631 and either 612 or 613.



Group C - Medical Microbiology  
This course of study is offered for students who have had undergraduate training in Biology or Medical Technology. It is designed to train them for supervisory, staff and research positions in hospital laboratories and in the food and drug industries.
Course Cr.
Required
603, 604 Biochemistry
641, 642 Advanced Microbiology
647 Immunology
   or
648 Immunobiology
695 General Virology
697, 698 Medical Microbiology
703, 704 Seminar in Microbiology

Electives (must select a total of 6 credits)
550 Molecular and Cell Biology
643 Mycology
707, 708 Research
Internship*

6
7
4

3
3
8
2


2
4
6
6

*Students registered in the program who have no undergraduate preparation in Medical Technology may be awarded up to a maximum of six credits upon submission of documentary evidence attesting to 12 months or more of work experience in the area of medical microbiology. The nature of the work experience will be evaluated by the Department of Biology with emphasis being placed on the knowledge of the nature and characteristics of the properties of microorganisms of medical importance and the possession of the skills needed to work with such organisms.



Group D - Electives  
Course Cr.
501 Human Sexuality
503 Modern Concepts of Evolution
508 The Biology of Cancer
511 Principles of Radioactivity
531 Neurochemistry
541 Special Topics in Biology
589 Scientific Computer Programming
      and Interfacing 3
614 Sensory Physiology 3
651 Advanced Vertebrate Physiology 4
663 Reproductive Physiology 3
701, 702 Seminar in Biology 1 or 7.
707, 708 Research 3 or 6
709, 710 Independent Study

3
3
3
3
3
3

3
3
4
3
1 or 2
3 or 6
3 or 6

Courses
Biology 501 Human Sexuality
A biological approach to human sexuality. This course includes the developmental, anatomical and functional changes in the reproductive systems, coitus, fertilization, pregnancy, birth and their hormonal and neurological control; prenatal development; population control; venereal diseases. Three credits.


Biology 503 Modern Concepts of Evolution
Prerequisites: An undergraduate major or minor in biology. A course in organic chemistry and genetics is strongly recommended. Offered on occasion The presentation of evidence favoring theories of organic evolution with emphasis on biochemical evolution and population dynamics. Modern genetics and cytology are applied to an understanding of the nature of the evolutionary process. Two lecture periods and independent trips utilizing facilities of the American Museum of Natural History. Three credits.



Biology 508 The Biology of Cancer Prerequisite: General background in biology and chemistry Offered every other Spring A general survey in oncology. Lectures deal with the historical perspective of cancer research, the definition and classification of tumors, the epidemiology of human cancer, gene regulation and differentiation in normal and tumor cells, characteristics of transformed malignant cells, the biology of tumor metastasis, host transformed malignant cells, the origins of human cancer, and cancer therapy. Three hours of lecture per week. Three credits.


Biology 511 Principles of Radioactivity
(Same as Chemistry 511) Prerequisites: Physics 32, Chemistry 122 Offered on occasion

Fundamentals of radioactivity, its measurement, detection and application to scientific problems. Students undertake some introductory laboratory experiments. Two lecture periods, collateral readings and a term report. Three credits.


Biology 521 Protozoology

Prerequisite: General biology and permission of the instructor Special Fee: $45.00 Offered on occasion

The study of the morphology, taxonomy, ecology, physiology and culture of protozoa. Two lectures, three-hour laboratory. Four credits.

Biology 531 Neurochemistry
(Same as Chemistry 531) Prerequisite: At least one semester of biochemistry Offered on occasion

The morphology, biochemical composition, metabolism, physiology and pharmacology of the nervous system will be discussed. The course will begin with the general principles of synaptic transmission and deal in depth with several of the neurotransmitter systems in terms of biosynthesis of the transmitter, storage, release, inactivation in the synapse, receptor types and how they mediate their signals in the post-synaptic cells. There will also be discussions on aging and development in the nervous system, drug addictions, and the role of various dietary nutrients on nervous system function. Three credits.


Biology 535 Laboratory Bacteriological Methods
Prerequisites: An undergraduate major in Biology and a knowledge of the fundamental principles of bacteriology. Permission of the instructor or department chair. Special Fee: $45.00 Offered every Fall

A laboratory course for students who have never had formal training in laboratory microbiology. This course will present the basic techniques required to stain and culture bacteria as well as those techniques required to study the metabolism, growth and environment influences on bacteria. Reactions used to isolate and identify bacteria of medical importance will be studied. Laboratory reports and outside reading required. Two hour laboratory. One credit.


Biology 541 Special Topics in Biology

Offered on occasion

Subjects of unusual current interest are presented in this one-semester course. Three hours of lecture including selected demonstrations. Course may be repeated. Three credits.


Biology 545 Biophysical Chemistry
Prerequisite: Chemistry 153 Offered every Spring

This course is designed for students who plan to work in chemical or pharmaceutical companies or who plan to do research in the biochemical, biological, biomedical and chemical sciences. It introduces students to principles and techniques in Physical Chemistry, and applies these fundamentals to studies on biomolecules, including biomembranes, peptides, proteins and DNA. Problem solving, two hours lecture, three hours laboratory. Four credits.


Biology 550 Molecular and Cell Biology Prerequisite: Biology 160 or permission of the instructor Offered every Fall

Advanced course in the molecular biology of eukaryotic gene structure and regulation, with emphasis on mammalian cell and developmental biology and genetics. Biochemical and biophysical studies of nucleic acid, chromatin, and chromosome structure; somatic cell and immunogenetics; DNA sequence organization; and cell developmental biology. Two lecture hours. Two credits.


Biology 551 Molecular and Cell Biology Laboratory Corequisite: Biology 550 or permission of the instructor Special Fee: $45.00 Offered every Fall

Advanced laboratory course in the molecular biology of eukaryotic cells. Laboratory instruction will include eukaryotic cell culture, RNA isolation and analysis, cell fusion and hybridoma technology, DNAmediated gene transfer, and microcomputer analysis of DNA sequence databases. Two two-hour laboratory sessions. Two credits.



Biology 589 Scientific Computer Programming and Interfacing

Prerequisite: Some knowledge of elementary computer programming in any language Special Fee: $45.00 Offered on occasion


Fundamentals of microcomputer architecture, microelectronics and microcomputer interfacing for the purpose of controlling and gathering data from common laboratory instruments. BASIC and machine language programming, construction of simple interface circuits for use with gas chromatographs, spectrophotometers, etc. Three credits.


Biology 601 Materials and Methods of Research

Offered on occasion An introduction to graduate biology, surveying the methods used in research, from the conception of a problem through the search for appropriate literature to the development of the experiment. Two lecture periods, collateral readings and reports. Three credits.


Biology 603, 604 Biochemistry

(Same as Chemistry 603, 604) Prerequisite: Organic chemistry or the equivalent Biology 603 offered every Fall and Summer Biology 604 offered every Spring and Summer

An inquiry into the chemistry of biologically important compounds including amino acids, protein, lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, vitamins, biological oxidation, intermediary metabolism, and enzyme systems. Two lecture periods, collateral readings and reports. Three credits per semester.


Biology 606 Plasmid Biology

Prerequisites: Biology 604 and 642 Offered every other Spring

This course describes the discovery of plasmids, their maintenance and regulation within their bacterial hosts, the phenotypes they confer and their epidemiology. The use of these extra-chromosomal genetic elements as tools of recombinant DNA research will also be discussed, along with the associated technology, such as restriction analysis, cloning, blotting, and DNA sequencing. Three credits.


Biology 607 Neuroanatomy

Prerequisite: General Biology Offered on occasion

A study of the organization of the human central nervous system. Emphasis is placed on the structures and organizations of the brain and spinal cord and on the cranial nerves, with additional material on the cranium and spinal column, the meninges, the blood supply, embryonic development, and histology of the central nervous system. Three hours lectures. Three credits.


Biology 609 Human Genetics
Offered every other Spring

Basic course in the principles of human genetics and molecular biology. Lecture topics include: structure of the human chromosome; techniques in molecular biology and cyto-genetics; structures of chromosomal abnormalities; abnormal chromosomes in humans and their related diseases; karyotype analysis; inheritance patterns of human diseases; mapping human chromosomes; human gene isolation. Three credits.
Biology 612 Cytology: The Nucleus
Offered on occasion

A detailed treatment of the structure and function of the cell with particular attention directed toward the chromosome, its composition, structure, and conformation during the cell cycle. Regulation of nuclear events by extracellular ligands and cytoplasmic signalling pathways are discussed. Two hours lecture, collateral reading and a term report. Three credits.

Biology 613 Cytology: The Cytoplasm
Special Fee: $45.00
Offered every Spring

An investigation of the organization and structure of the cytoplasm, including a detailed treatment of cell organelles, their activities and interactions. The molecular and biochemical relationship among all cellular components is stressed. Laboratory analyses include microscopy, cell fractionation, chromatography, electrophoresis and computer simulations of cellular organelles. Two hours lecture and three hours laboratory. Four credits.

Biology 614 Sensory Physiology
Prerequisite: College course in Physiology Offered on occasion

A study of the mechanism of operation of biological sensors. Two lecture periods, collateral readings and a term report. Three credits.


Biology 616 Pathobiology of Leukocytes Offered every other Spring

Beginning with an overview of structure and function of normal leukocytes and their development, the course will consider recent findings in pathologic states (nonmalignant as
well as malignant aberrations), and will culminate in correlation with general aspects of neoplasia, their clinical recognition, and some experimental techniques involved in investigation of leukocyte disorders. Three credits.
Biology 631 Genetics
Prerequisites: An undergraduate major or minor in Biology and a knowledge of the fundamental principles of genetics Offered on occasion

A comprehensive treatment of recent advances in molecular genetics with particular attention devoted to control mechanisms and extra chromosomal
inheritance. Two lecture periods, collateral readings and a term report. Three credits.

Biology 632 Developmental Biology Prerequisite: A college course in Embryology or the equivalent; a college course in Genetics is recommended Offered Fall 1999

A review of the current concepts and experimental evidence regarding developmental phenomena. Special emphasis will be placed on the molecular biology and genetic control of selected phases and processes of animal development. Two lecture periods, collateral readings and a term report. Three credits.


Biology 641, 642 Advanced Microbiology Prerequisite: Microbiology Special Fee: $45.00 for Biology 642 Biology 641 offered every Fall; Biology 642 offered every Spring

Presentations on the anatomy and physiology of various prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms. Emphasis is placed on the composition, structure and function of cellular organelles, enzyme localization, molecular mechanisms of action of antimicrobial agents and selected topics of current interest in microbial physiology. Fall semester: collateral readings and term reports. Spring semester: twohour lecture and three laboratory hours. Three credits first semester; four credits second semester.


Biology 643 Mycology
Prerequisite: Microbiology or equivalent Special Fee: $45.00 Offered on occasion

A study of the classification, identification, life cycles, and the morphologic, physiologic, and biochemical aspects of various species of fungi comprising the major classes and orders. Emphasis is placed on those fungi of economic and medical importance. Two-hour lecture, three laboratory hours. Four credits.


Biology 647 Immunology
Prerequisite: Biology 604 Special Fee: $45.00 Offered every Fall

A study of the basic principles of immunology, including antigens and their reactions, antibodies and their properties, the cells and tissues of the immune system, tolerance, and the specificity and molecular biology of immune responses. Lab includes purification and characterization of antibodies by affinity chromatography, Ouchterlony and Radial immunodiffusion, ELISA, and SDSPAGE. Two hours lecture and three hours laboratory. Four credits.


Biology 651 Advanced Vertebrate Physiology
Prerequisites: College courses in physiology and organic chemistry or their equivalent Special Fee: $45.00 Offered on occasion

Modern concepts of basic physiological processes as they occur in vertebrate organisms at the organ and system levels. Two lecture periods and one three-hour laboratory period. Four credits.


Biology 663 Reproductive Physiology
A college course in physiology is recommended
Offered on occasion

A study of vertebrate anatomical structures and physiological processes related to reproduction. Some aspects of gametogenesis, fertilization and its regulation, implantation and gestation are presented. Three credits.


Biology 692 Molecular Biology
Offered Fall 1998

A detailed look at the biosynthesis of DNA and RNA, the genetic code, and the mechanisms of protein biosynthesis. The application of molecular biology techniques to current research problems will be explored. Three credits.


Biology 695 General Virology
Prerequisites: Biology 603, 604
Offered every Fall

Topics include physico-chemical characteristics, identification, genetics, immunology of viruses. Molecular biology of virus-host interaction is emphasized. Representative studies of animal, bacterial, plant viruses are emphasized to illustrate fundamental aspects of viral replication, cell susceptibility, cell response to viral infection. Two lecture periods, collateral readings and term report. Three credits.


Biology 697, 698 Medical, Microbiology Prerequisites: Biology 603, 604, 641, 642 and approval of Department Chair
Special Fee: $45.00 for Biology 698
Biology 697 offered every Fall
Biology 698 offered every Spring

A study of microbial-human host interrelationships with particular attention to the transmission, pathogenicity, and principles of immunity of infectious diseases, especially those of bacterial origin. Emphasis is placed on the newest approaches to the detection, isolation and identification of the organisms implicated in the disease process. Two lecture hours and one three-hour laboratory session per week in Spring semester. Three credits first semester; four credits second semester.


Biology 701, 702 Seminar in Biology

Biology 701 offered every Fall
Biology 702 offered every Spring

Presentation of selected topics in biological fields by members of the graduate faculty and visiting guest speakers. These courses may be taken for credit but it is required that all biology majors attend. Subject matter changes each semester. May be repeated for credit. One credit per semester.


Biology 703, 704 Seminar in Microbiology Corequisites: Biology 6977, 698
Biology 703 offered every Fall
Biology 704 offered every Spring

All students registered in the program will meet to consider current research and problems in the area of Medical Microbiology and related fields. The meetings will be conducted by the members of the staff. Participants will include staff members, students and invited guests. One credit per semester.


Biology 705, 706 Seminar in Molecular Biology

Biology 705 offered every Fall
Biology 706 offered every Spring

Students will make research presentations on current topics in molecular biology. Faculty will discuss their research interests with students. One credit per semester.


Biology 707, 708 Research and Preparation of the Thesis
Open only to matriculated students with approval of Department Chair
Special Fee: $45.00 per semester

Selection, supervision and completion of the thesis topic. Pass/Fail only. Three credits per semester.


Biology 709, 710 Independent Study Prerequisite: 12 credits toward the master's degree. Specific course prerequisites to be determined by faculty supervisor.

This course is designed to provide the advanced student an opportunity for an independent project. The course and its specific requirements will be under the supervision of a faculty member. Departmental approval required. One to three credits per semester.



 

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Biology Department